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Krill oil is made from a species of krill Euphausia superba]. Three of the most important nutrients in krill oil are: (1) omega-3 fatty acids similar to those of fish oil, (2) omega-3 fatty acids attached (conjugated) to phospholipids, mainly phosphatidylcholine (alternatively referred to as marine lecithin) and (3) astaxanthin, an antioxidant. The fatty acid composition in the phospholipids in krill oil has been described in two papers. A clinical study conducted at the University of Montreal using a branded krill oil concluded that it can significantly reduce dysmenorrhea, a gynecological medical condition characterized by severe uterine pain during menstruation, and the emotional symptoms of premenstrual syndrome. Other suppliers claim to offer comparable or more potent complexes using similar fractions of the krill complex, produced through a different process altogether. Several studies have shown toxic residues in Antarctic krill and fish.